The Hook Lighthouse is the oldest operational lighthouse in the World. Tradition states that Dubhán, a missionary monk, may have established some sort of beacon at this location as early as the 5th century. Interestingly, the word ‘dubhán’ in the Irish language means ‘fishing hook’, later translated to ‘the hook’ or ‘hook head’, giving this location it’s name. The exact date for the construction of the tower is still debated but it may have been built by Raymond Le Gros around 1172 or by William Marshall in the early 1200’s who were both Norman conquerors. The reason for it’s construction was to not only establish a lighthouse but to also fortify the approaches to Waterford Harbour. The original tower, was 8m high and roughly 8.5m in diameter, with an open fire at the top serving as the beacon. The tower and its grounds was entrusted to local monks for the next 700 years, who were then associated with the Priory of Saint Augustine in Ross. In 2001 the light was opened to the public as a tourist attraction with a visitor centre. ‘The Hooks” fog horn was heard for the last time in January 2011, as it was felt that with all the technology on modern ships, fog horns were no longer required. In June 2011 it was placed 1st by Lonely Planet in its list of “Top 10 Flashiest Lighthouses” describing it as “The great grand daddy of lighthouses”.